АРИАДНА-125130 - исследования в области недвижимости и строительства
Опубликовано: Сентябрь 28, 2010

Technical and tariff rationing of labor

What are the main tasks of technical and tariff rationing of labor?

Technical rationing provides for the development and implementation of sound production labor standards, the identification and reduction of working time losses, as well as the study and implementation of advanced methods of labor organization, tariff — the organization of the wage system by quantitative and qualitative assessment of labor costs, taking into account its severity, complexity, the importance of regional factors and the level of qualification of workers.

With the help of rationing, the most rational organization of labor is determined, effective methods and techniques of work are chosen, the mode of work and rest, the organization and system of workplace maintenance, forms of distribution and cooperation of labor. In addition, the norms help to organize wages correctly and implement the principle of remuneration for labor in terms of its quantity and quality. Such tasks can be solved only on the basis of technically sound standards.

A technically sound norm is a norm established taking into account the technical, technological and organizational capabilities of production. Its technical justification is taking into account the technical characteristics of the machines, mechanisms and tools used serving the normalized process, the physico—chemical properties of raw materials, materials and structures, the technology used; the current labor organization system, qualifications, best practices and skills of performers, etc.
What are the production standards expressed in?

Production norms are expressed in the form of norms of time, labor costs, production of workers, machines, as well as norms of material consumption used for organizing and paying workers for grassroots planning, determining needs and accounting for material consumption. They should reflect the technical policy and the level of technical progress in construction.

The norm of time is the time set for the performance of a given volume of good—quality products (works) by a worker or the time of using construction machines and mechanisms under normal working conditions. Time standards show the duration of the execution of production processes and are expressed in hours per unit of measurement of products or works (h /unit of measurement).

The labor cost rate is the set amount of labor spent on performing a given volume of high—quality products (works) under normal working conditions. This concept determines the amount of labor costs or their labor intensity and is calculated in man-hours per unit of product measurement (person-hour /unit of measurement).

The time norm shows the current time required to complete the workflow, is indicated only in units of time, and the cost norm is the sum of the time of all costs provided for by the norms for the execution of the workflow. In the current and departmental production norms, labor cost norms are conventionally called time norms and are produced in person-h. If the current norm provides for the performance of the production process by one worker, then the value of the time norm will be equal to the labor cost norm.

The machine time norm is the amount of working time set for the production of a unit of production (work) with efficient use of machines and proper organization of production. The norms of time are expressed in hours per unit meter (h/unit of measurement).

The rate of machine productivity is the amount of products that the machine must produce per unit of time with its effective use and proper organization of the mechanized process. This rate is calculated for 1 hour or 1 shift.

The norms of time, labor costs and output, as well as the maintenance rate and the standards for the number of workers are established taking into account the technical level achieved in the industry and the use of advanced construction experience from normal working conditions, the main elements of which are: the serviceable condition of machinery, equipment and fixtures; the proper amount of materials and tools necessary to perform the work, and their timely delivery; timely supply of electricity and other energy sources; healthy and safe working conditions; timely provision of technical documentation.

In this regard, it is necessary to ensure normal working conditions during construction and installation work. Otherwise, comparability is lost, the impression of "ease" or "difficulty" of the approved norms is created.

How are production standards divided according to the degree of consolidation?

According to the degree of enlargement, production standards are divided into elementary and enlarged (complex).

The element norm is the norm of time for the execution of individual elements of the workflow. Working techniques, operations, or a group of several working operations, in some cases, working movements, can be accepted as elements.

The enlarged norm is the norm of time for the execution of a set of processes for a certain amount of work. The degree of enlargement of the norm is determined by the peculiarities of the technology of the process under study and the possibility of determining the volume of finished products or a set of works.
What are the types of production standards?

Currently, various types of production standards are applied in construction.

Uniform Norms and rates (ENiR) are the All—Union norms of time and the rates calculated on their basis for the performance of construction, installation and repair and construction works, approved by the USSR State Construction Committee, the USSR State Committee for Labor in coordination with the All-Union Central Committee for mandatory application when paying workers in all construction organizations. These standards cover about 70% of piecework paid work. Along with the calculations of piecework wages of workers, the ENiR are used to compile estimated standards in construction.

Departmental norms and rates (VNiR) are norms and rates developed by methods of technical rationing for works that are not included in the collections of the GNiR, and approved by the head of the ministry or department in coordination with the relevant central or republican committee of the trade union and mandatory for all organizations only of this ministry and department. Collections of VNiR are subject to mandatory registration with the USSR State Construction Committee with the assignment of established indexes and serial numbers before their publication. On the construction sites of another ministry or department, VNiR may be distributed for mandatory use only by order or instruction of this ministry or department, agreed with the relevant trade union committee.

Local norms and rates (MNR) are indicators developed locally and approved by the head of a construction organization or an enterprise that carries out construction in an economic way. In agreement with the trade union committee, MnIr are mandatory for use only in this construction and are developed directly at construction sites for work not covered by the collections of ENiR, VNiR, as well as in the case of using more advanced technology or production organization, new efficient materials and structures, productive machines or equipment than provided by ENiR. The use of local norms by other organizations is possible after their approval and approval in accordance with the established procedure.

The tariff of works in the collections of the ENIR was made in accordance with the Tariff and Qualification Directory of Works and Professions of workers engaged in construction and repair and construction works (TCS, parts I, II and III), approved by the resolution of the State Committee of Labor, the USSR State Construction Committee and the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the USSR dated July 17, 1985 No. 226/125/15—88.

The types of work not provided for by the TCS are charged according to the relevant sections of the Unified Tariff and Qualification Directory of Works and Professions of Workers of the National Economy of the USSR (ETCS), which was approved by the resolution of the State Committee of Labor of the USSR and the Secretariat of the Central Executive Committee of January 31, 1985 No. 31/3—30. When performing work by workers not of the categories specified in the ENiR, it is not allowed to change the approved time standards and rates. Uniform norms and rates, except for specially stipulated cases, take into account and are not separately paid for the time spent by workers on preparatory and final operations, including preparing the workplace and putting it in order at the end of the shift, receiving materials from on-site storerooms, receiving and carrying tools and small devices to the place of work with delivery after the completion of the work, for transitions within the same object associated with the change of jobs, for refueling and the point of tools in the process of work, for maintenance in the order of devices and machines, including fixing repairs, as well as for receiving assignments and handing over the completed work to the master or foreman. The necessary time for periodic rest of workers during the working shift is taken into account in the ENiR.


Why is it necessary to revise production standards?

As a result of technological progress and an increase in the cultural and technical level of workers, contributing to an increase in labor productivity, the level of implementation of many production standards in force in construction is gradually increasing. The preservation of such norms without an increase, without taking into account the prevailing changes In the organization and technology of construction and installation works reduces their importance: the socialist principle of payment based on labor results is violated, that is, the growth of workers' wages may outpace the growth of labor productivity, which is completely unacceptable. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically determine the level of compliance with existing production standards, analyze and revise them based on the materials received.

От: Pjatnickiy A.,  

Скрыть комментарии (0)


Ваше имя:
Введите код, который Вы видите на изображении выше (чувствителен к регистру). Для обновления изображения нажмите на него.

Похожие темы

    « Вернуться